2008年3月21日星期五

连岳:西藏信息论

  

1、有权力想封锁信息,则应假定此权力为坏。

2、有权力竟然封锁住了信息,则更应假定此权力为坏。

3、封锁信息的权力单方面发布信息,则应假定此发布的信息为假。

4、一切失真信息,封锁信息的权力应负主要责任。

5、封锁信息的权力没有任何公信力裁判流传的相关信息。

6、信息封锁是事态恶化与分歧加深的唯一原因,因为任何立场的人都可以自说自话,而无从加以检验。

7、极端民族主义是激情而非理性,所以信息封锁是它的温床,它滋养了极藏、极汉、仇日、仇台等其他一切极端情绪。

8、中国大陆目前是极端情绪浓厚的地方,它是权力最大的支持者,更可能阻碍权力的改良。

9、只有充分的信息、充分的表达才能消解极端情绪,管制所谓的“危险言论”是最大的危险。

10、所以,从此让媒体在西藏自由采访是解决问题的重要办法。

7 条评论:

Bige M 说...

  
  王朔说“为什么我们在进化中脱颖而出啊?……因为我们生活在树上,我们有视野,看得远……”

  你看,朔爷又开始胡喷了,科学界公认的说法完全跟他相反,猴子之所以变成了人,正是因为它们从树上下来了。

Bige M 说...

  
  :以前是不是没有避孕方法,听说生个女的就塞到簸箕往河里一推?

  :是,所以上游全是男人,下游全是女人;有诗为证:君住江之头,我住江之尾

Bige M 说...

  
  段子说完了,来段严肃的。看了几天新闻,都大同小异。《华盛顿邮报》这篇评论算是代表了西方主流媒体的态度。一个旁观者把要点一一列出,不投入太多感情;与双方的说法都保持一定距离。



Trouble in Tibet


China's repression produces a backlash.

Saturday, March 15, 2008; Page A12


CHINA HAS BEEN planning carefully to prevent "unharmonious" elements from sullying its pristine 2008 Olympic Games. It has cracked down on dissidents all over China, and it has even closed off access to Mount Everest to prevent disruption of the Olympic torch relay. Despite all these measures, protests erupted across Tibet this week.


On Monday, the 49th anniversary of an unsuccessful uprising against China, hundreds of Tibetan monks began marching into Lhasa and were stopped by police. A second protest the next day devolved into chaos when police reportedly used tear gas to disperse the crowd, and since then laypeople have joined the movement and turned violent. The violence escalated yesterday, with dozens of wounded flooding into hospitals.


Historically, China has not been terribly hesitant to use force in quelling protests, particularly protests advocating Tibetan "splittism." In the first few days, Chinese police appeared to be restraining themselves, perhaps aware that the world was watching, but since then there have been reports of gunfire and mass arrests. Anywhere between a handful and a hundred Tibetans have been reported killed.


These are the largest protests in two decades, and they are part of a greater narrative of repression of the Tibetan people. For decades the Chinese government has afforded the "Tibet Autonomous Region" little in the way of autonomy, and it has punished monks and laypeople for devotion to their exiled religious leader, the Dalai Lama. After decades of repression, monks and other Tibetans have chosen to seize the moment. They, like others with grievances against China for its human rights policies, realize that these few months ahead of the Olympics present their best chance to gain the world's interest.


In light of the violence of the past few days, several governments -- including that of the United States -- have asked China to show restraint. The Dalai Lama has issued a similar statement that also exhorted Tibetans to refrain from violence. The international community should continue to urge China to talk with the Tibetan leader, who in recent years has acknowledged Chinese rule and asked only for greater cultural independence for his people. World leaders should also urge China to follow its constitution, which requires freedom of speech and religion, as well as self-rule for ethnic minorities. It is, after all, the lack of these rights in practice that is pushing resentful Tibetans into extremism.

Bige M 说...

  
英国前外长发于《泰晤士报》这篇评论颇有借鉴意义,香港模式可以适用于西藏。

——————

From The Times
March 21, 2008

Tibet: try the Hong Kong solution

China invented the idea of two systems in one country. It worked brilliantly. It can again

Malcolm Rifkind


It is easy to get depressed about the trauma of Tibet and the suppression of Tibetan cultural and political aspirations. It is, after all, almost half a century since the Dalai Lama fled his country. He has never been able to return and recent events make it highly unlikely that he will in the foreseeable future.

Over that half century the Soviet Union has collapsed into 15 independent states, apartheid has been defeated in South Africa, colonial empires have disappeared, and the United States could be about to elect its first black president. But Tibet and the Tibetans remain under the iron hand of Beijing, denied not just self-government but also the free expression of their unique cultural and religious identity.

Pessimism about the future may seem inevitable but it need not be. A solution is already available that would not only meet Tibetan aspirations but would do so in a way that should be acceptable to China.

China is the country that invented the concept of two systems in one country. It did so in order to absorb Hong Kong back into the motherland without killing the goose that laid the golden eggs. It was the inspiration of Deng Xiaoping and it has been brilliantly successful.

Instead of insisting that the Hong Kong Chinese had to accept a communist economic system combined with political uniformity, the people of Hong Kong have been able to continue to live as a Western, capitalist enclave within the Chinese body politic.

Although there are clear limits to its freedom and democratic rights, Hong Kong enjoys real autonomy, a functioning rule of law and a liberal press and media that have no equivalent in most of China.

Similar freedoms have been conceded to the former Portuguese colony of Macao. Nor is there any doubt that the Chinese Government would be delighted to conclude a similar arrangement with the Taiwanese if the latter could be persuaded to accept reunification with mainland China in the years to come.

If China is, therefore, able to live with genuine autonomy and cultural freedom in Hong Kong and Macao, and if it would be only too happy to concede it to Taiwan, why can a similar offer not be made to the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan people?

The answer is that, until now, the Chinese have not considered it to be necessary. They have assumed that they could make the Dalai Lama a non-person, gradually forgotten by his fellow Tibetans. They have hoped that a substantial and growing migration of Han Chinese into Tibet would transform the demographic composition of the territory and make the Tibetans an ethnic minority in their own land.

China now has to acknowledge that these objectives have totally failed. Far from marginalising the Dalai Lama, they have seen him transformed into an Asian Nelson Mandela, fêted around the world and revered by his people as a symbol as well as a leader.


Young Tibetans have become radicalised as people do in the modern world wherever the denial of freedom is seen as being combined with foreign occupation. Tibet looks likely to become a cause célèbre for protest movements around the world and public opinion in the West wants their leaders to do what they can to help the Tibetan cause.

An autonomous, self-governing Tibet within China should not be that difficult for the Chinese to accept. The Dalai Lama has made it clear that he is not seeking independence and, while that will disappoint many of his followers, the vast majority would accept his authority and be delighted and relieved if some genuine self-government was to be introduced.

The Chinese, for their part, would find that their reputation in the world as a whole was transformed. At present they appear, and behave, as if they were the world's last colonial empire. The internet and the mobile phone have made it impossible for them to seal off

Tibet from the outside world. Increased repression or political and cultural reform are the only choices left available to them and the price they would pay if they opt for repression will be high and will grow.

We should not be naive. Whatever the price, the Chinese would be willing to pay it if they saw Tibet breaking away from China and becoming a separate state. That will not be even a distant possibility unless and until China itself embraces democratic reform.

But a Tibetan province with cultural freedom and a significant degree of political autonomy would be no more than is already enjoyed by Hong Kong and Macao. It would be a Chinese solution to a Chinese problem and all the better for it.

The Chinese are planning that the Olympic torch should, in the run-up to the Olympic Games, be carried through Tibet on its way to Beijing. In current circumstances that would constitute a shameful betrayal of the Olympic ideal.

But if the Chinese Government means what it says when it offers a dialogue with the Dalai Lama in exchange for a renunciation of independence and violence, there could be a transformation in the current poisonous atmosphere.

A serious offer of political and cultural reform would not only delight the Tibetans and impress the world, it would also make the Beijing Olympics a unique opportunity to welcome the new China to its rightful place in the pantheon of nations.

Sir Malcolm Rifkind, MP, was Foreign Secretary, 1995-97

匿名 说...

作为一个中国人,你说的话比谁都重要。因为是一个中国人批评自己的人。如果又是一个美国人或藏族人发表意见,中国会认为这是为了打倒中国。所以作为一个中国人我感谢你。。 能够真正的了解情况,研究“新闻”。很少能见到像你这样关心又追求事实的人。希望你可以继续。你说的话在中国很重要。

Bige M 说...

  
  图图主教出来斡旋了。也许其中许多话,很多人听了会不高兴,非常不高兴,但是,这样一个不太可能对中国有恶意的人,说的话与你想象的大有出入,也许是时候看看自己出了什么问题。全世界在几十年内都误解你,如果真是这样,在谴责全世界的同时,也要想一想,是什么让我们这么容易受误解。


  原文出处:http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/onfaith/desmond_tutu/2008/03/statement_on_tibet_and_china.html



Statement on Tibet and China


I wish to express my solidarity with the people of Tibet during this critical time in their history. To my dear friend His Holiness the Dalai Lama, let me say: I stand with you. You define non-violence and compassion and goodness. I was in an Easter retreat when the recent tragic events unfolded in Tibet. I learned that China has stated you caused violence. Clearly China does not know you, but they should. I call on China's government to know His Holiness the Dalai Lama, as so many have come to know, during these long decades years in exile. Listen to His Holiness' pleas for restraint and calm and no further violence against this civilian population of monastics and lay people.

I urge China to enter into a substantive and meaningful dialogue with this man of peace, the Dalai Lama. China is uniquely positioned to impact and affect our world. Certainly the leaders of China know this or they would not have bid for the Olympics. Killing, imprisonment and torture are not a sport: the innocents must be released and given free and fair trials.

I urge my esteemed friend Louise Arbour, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to visit Tibet and be given access to assess, and report to the international community, the events which led to this international outcry for justice. The High Commissioner should be allowed to travel with journalists, and other observers, who may speak truth to power and level the playing field so that, indeed, this episode -- these decades of struggle -- may attain a peaceful resolution. This will help not only Tibet. It will help China.

And China, poised to receive the world during the forthcoming Olympic Games needs to make sure the eyes of the world will see that China has changed, that China is willing to be a responsible partner in international global affairs. Finally, China must stop naming, blaming and verbally abusing one whose life has been devoted to non violence, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, a Nobel peace laureate.

匿名 说...

是呀。。我其实到三藩市去了听了desmond tutu 讲的话。说得很好。可是大陆来的人都不肯听。他们只听喜欢听的话。为什么??? 所以我看到你说的话就很惊讶。 你怎么就不像其他国内人呢?中国可以成为一个大好国家,可以跟达赖喇嘛一起合作。。这样多好?可不,还不承认达赖喇嘛的Middle Way。 你说怎么办?再次感谢你